Gerald Brosseau Gardner is widely considered the “Father of Modern Witchcraft” because of his efforts to publicize religious Witchcraft/Wicca in the 1940s and ‘50s.

Gerald Gardner was born in England on June 13, 1884 to a wealthy middle class family, but spent much of his life in Asia as a rubber planter and later as a civil servant.

In 1927 Gardner married Donna Rosedale. The marriage was a happy one that would last until Donna’s death in 1960.

Gardner was an enthusiastic student of archeology, anthropology, and folklore, as well as historic weaponry.

In the 1930s Gardner and his wife returned to Britain and became in[1]volved in the British metaphysical community. In 1939 Gardner was initi[1]ated into Witchcraft by Dorothy Clutterbuck. Clutterbuck’s coven may have been formed in the wake of Leland and Murray’s writings, though some hold that it was founded by George Pickingill. Gardner would later claim that the ritual system used by Clutterbuck was “fragmentary” and he expanded upon it liberally by drawing from other systems.

Gerald Gardner wrote a number of books including Witchcraft Today and The Meaning of Witchcraft which publicized the Wiccan religion. Gerald Gardner died in 1964 and is buried in Tunis, Tunisia.


A native of Tennessee, Grey Cat is perhaps best known as the founder of the Northwind Tradition of Wicca.

Born in 1940, Lady Grey Cat was prominent member of the Pagan Press. Lady Grey Cat was the editor of The Crone Papers, a periodical exploring the wisdom and mysteries of the Elders. She is a two-time winner of the Silver Salamander Award for Excellence in pagan Journalism. Lady Grey Cat has served as Members’ Advocate for the Ar n’Draiocht Fein Druid Fellowship as well as Second Officer and Publications Officer of the Cov[1]enant of the Goddess.

Lady Grey Cat is the Founder of the Northwind Tradition of Wicca. She is the author of American Indian Ceremonies (1990, with Medicine Hawk Wilburn) and Deepening Witchcraft: Advancing Skills and Knowledge (2002).

Lady Grey Cat died on March 30, 2012.


Orpheis Caroline High Correll claimed to come from a family of Heredi[1]tary Witches, although what her birth family actually believed or practiced will probably never be known with certainty. What is known is that the family followed some sort of unorthodox religious practice and that they maintained a secluded compound near the Indiana/Illinois border where Caroline High was born on September 4, 1860. In 1864 Caroline’s family left the compound, but not the family, to live in nearby Danville, Illinois.

In 1876 the High family compound was destroyed by federal authorities in a Waco-style raid that left many of the family members and their sup[1]porters dead. In subsequent months many other family members were tried, imprisoned, or executed including some of Caroline’s closest rela[1]tives. All her life Caroline maintained that the charges that led to the raid were false, and attributed them to racial and religious bigotry.

In 1879 Caroline founded a “new family” which became known as the Correllian Tradition, after her married name: Correll. Caroline claimed that this Tradition was built upon the beliefs of her birth family, but also incorporated new elements throughout her lifetime, as have her successors.

Caroline and her husband John Correll traveled widely and operated a number of businesses over the years. For many years they operated a carnival during the summer, and worked as “Art Lecturers” during the winter using what was then cutting edge technology that was as much an attraction as the art they exhibited.

Caroline worked as a psychic reader, and was an attraction at her own carnival. Caroline’s eldest daughter, Dora High Correll, also was also an attraction at the carnival, performing on the high trapeze without a net. Dora’s death in 1898 brought the carnival to an end. Her parent’s mar[1]riage ended not long after.

Whatever the beliefs of Caroline’s ancestors may have been, she became involved in European Witchcraft in the early 1900s. Caroline was a close friend of, and may have been related to, the artist Lydia Beckett. Beckett introduced Caroline to Aradianism – an Americanized form of Italian Stregheria Witchcraft as filtered through Leland’s Aradia. Many Aradian ideas have been central to Correllianism ever since.

Caroline continued to work as a psychic reader until her death. She also performed healings, and sold herbal remedies and charms of various kinds. In addition to Correllianism, which was a private familial tradition at the time, Caroline was also prominent in the Spiritualist movement and in the Universalist movement. Orpheis Caroline High Correll died in 1939, and was succeeded as Head of the High-Correll family by her daughter Mable.


Mable High Correll was born in 1899 AD, the third daughter and seventh child of Caroline High Correll and John Correll. Mable became Caroline’s heir in 1928 AD, after both of her two elder sisters had died. Mable High Correll became Head of the Correllian Tradition in 1939 AD and led the Tradition until her death in February of 1966 AD.

Mable married several times, her second husband being the Jazz Age bootlegger Rae Baxter (ne Smart), and her third husband the Swedish nobleman Sixten Sandberg. Mable was involved in a number of high profile media stories during her lifetime, perhaps most notably the notorious Harry Parker case.

Mable had two children: Ray Baxter who did not follow her in the Tradi[1]tion, and LaVeda Lewis-Highcorrell (nee Baxter) who succeeded her as Head of Tradition, and who inaugurated the custom of hyphenating the High Correll name to other surnames, which would be followed by a number of her relatives.

In addition to Correllianism, Lady Mable was also prominently involved in the Spiritualist and Universalist movements, and studied other move[1]ments such as Theosophy and Rosicrucianism.

Although she left no writings, Lady Mable strongly influenced many Correllian ideas regarding existential matters such as reincarnation and the nature of the soul, the nature of physical existence and the planes, and time theory. Lady Mable also played a formative role in the creation of Correllian psychic development program, which would be further developed later.


Imhotep was a High Priest, a physician, and an architect. He is also said to have excelled in the magical arts.

Imhotep is most famous for designing Pharaoh Djoser’s Step Pyramid, at Saqqara. Imhotep may also have been the first architect to use columns in building. Even without magic these innovations guarantee Imhotep a place in history.

As well as being the first great Witch in history, Imhotep is also history’s first great physician.

After his death Imhotep was widely venerated, and eventually was considered a God in his own right. As a God Imhotep is a patron of architects, physicians, scribes, priests and witches, and civil servants.


Born on 22 February, 1917, Sybil Leek claimed descent from a family of Hereditary Witches. She was given an extensive metaphysical education by her father and grandmother, and was also much influenced by their wide circle of acquaintances which included Aleister Crowley.

During the 1950s and ‘60s Sybil Leek became a prominent spokesperson for Witchcraft in the media, giving many interviews in print, on radio and television.

Born in Britain, Sybil Leek lived in several countries during her lifetime, eventually settling in the United States in 1964 where she lived until her death in 1982.

During her lifetime Sybil Leek wrote more than sixty books on Wicca, Witchcraft, and metaphysics, and had a huge influence on the development of modern Wicca.


Charles Godfrey Leland is among the greatest scholars of the Pagan re[1]vival, and his works were seminal to the development of modern Wicca.

He was the first author to write about Witchcraft with inside knowledge, being himself an initiate of Italian Stregheria. Leland was also among the first to use the term “Wicca,” and the first to publish a version of the “Charge of the Goddess”.

A prolific writer, Leland wrote books on everything from arts and crafts to religion and metaphysics. Leland studied and wrote about the beliefs of Gypsies, Native Americans, followers of Voodoo (at the crest of its U.S. popularity in Leland’s day), and of course, Witches.

Charles Godfrey Leland was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on Au[1]gust 15, 1824. The Lelands were an ancient and wealthy family. They had settled in North America in 1636, but had been prominent in England long before this. Leland was highly educated, graduating from Princeton, and studying at the universities of Munich and Heidelberg in Germany and the Sorbonne in France.

In 1856 Leland married Isabel Fisher. The marriage was very happy, and lasted for 45 years, until Isabel’s death. While in Europe, Leland took part in the Paris Revolution of 1848 AD. Back in the U.S. he later fought in the civil war as a union soldier. He was present at Gettysburg.

Leland worked extensively as a journalist and editor in the U.S. He also had a number of other careers; as a lawyer, as an oil prospector, but most notably as an author. During his lifetime Leland published over fifty books on various subjects.

He was best known to his contemporaries as the author of Hans Breitmann’s Ballads a book of comic poetry written in the style of German-American folk songs, published in 1872.

In 1879 Leland opened The Industrial Art School. Leland was an excellent artist and craftsman, with a strong interest in the folk arts which were then fashionable.

After his parents’ death Leland had traveled extensively in Europe, living there for periods of time. Until the end of his life he would make frequent trips back and forth across the Atlantic.

In Europe Leland learned Shelta, the secret language of the Celtic tink[1]ers. And in Europe he lived with and studied the Gypsies – the Romany people. Leland wrote extensively about the Gypsies. He learned to speak their language and studied their traditions, publishing a great deal of material on the subject. In 1888 Leland became the first president of the Gypsy-Lore Society, and in 1891 he published the book Gypsy Sorcery and Folklore.

During this same period Leland also became acquainted with another magical Tradition – the Witches of Italy. Around 1886 Leland met the Witch Maddalena Taluti, a Hereditary Italian Strega. Maddalena introduced Leland to the world of the Stregheria, sharing her knowledge of Italian Witch-lore and magic.

In the winter of 1888 Leland became initiated into Stregheria, called La Vecchia Religione or “The Old Religion.” In subsequent years he would publish a great deal of what he learned in books such as Etruscan[1]Roman Remains in Popular Tradition (1892) and Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches (1899).

Charles Godfrey Leland died on March 20, 1903. His ashes were shipped back to Philadelphia for burial.


Rev. Donald Lewis-Highcorrell is First Priest and Paramount High Priest of the Correllian Tradition, and at Mabon of 2000 AD was ac[1]claimed Chancellor of the Tradition as well.

On September 4, 2001 AD Rev. Don joined with Ed Hubbard and Lisa Tuit to found Witch School (, the world's largest school of metaphysics with students in all over the world.

Rev. Don is also the production head for Magick TV ( and hosted the series “Living the Wiccan Life” and “The Interactive Grimoire” as well as doing a daily question[1]and-answer Vlog.

In his role as Chancellor of the Tradition Rev. Don is responsible for the day-to-day running of the Tradition, and all matters affecting it. The Chancellor is empowered to act on behalf of the Tradition's leadership, both severally and as a whole, to ensure the smooth running of the Tradition.

As First Priest of the Tradition Rev. Don is responsible for co-ordination between Correllian Temples, and implementation of the Tradition's policies. The First Priest is also responsible for the Tradition's records and publications, and acts as chair of the Witan Council, which is composed of the chartered Heads of Correllian Temples.

As First Priest Rev. Don is also the Chief Priest of the Correll Mother Temple. Rev. Don is also the founding Temple Head and for many years Chief Priest of Chicago’s Holy City Temple, Est. 1991 AD.

Rev. Don is the son of the Blv. LaVeda Lewis-Highcorrell, who headed the Correllian Tradition from 1966 – 1979 AD. Rev. Don is the head of the Mabelline branch of the High-Correll family. He has been an initiated Priest of the Correllian Tradition since 1976 AD, and a Third Degree High Priest since 1579 Pisces 1979 AD.

Rev. Don received his training from M. Rev. Krystel High-Correll. Rev. Don also received training from the Blv. Lady LaVeda, the Blv. Lady Gloria, and Lady Bitterwind, all Elders of the Correllian Tradition. In addition Rev. Don has studied both formally and informally with a variety of teachers from many Traditions.

Rev. Don is a co-founder and officer of the Pagan Interfaith Embassy, serving for several years as Pagan Interfaith Ambassador to the U.S. The

Pagan Interfaith Embassy was founded in the wake of the Parliament of World’s Religions held in Chicago in 1993 AD, with the intention of fostering greater communication and co-operation between Pagan groups and Traditions. The Pagan Interfaith Embassy has sponsored such events as the Chicago Pagan Leadership Conferences (in 1994 AD), Pagan Unity Night (1994 AD), and Pagan Expo 1997, 2000, and 2001 AD.

Rev. Don has an extensive background in media, and has edited several magazines over the years, including The Round Table magazine (1994 –2003 AD) and the Wheel Of Hekate magazine (1987 – 1989 AD) and was art editor of Psychic Chicago Magazine(1990 – 1992 AD).

Rev. Don is well known both as an artist and as an author. Don’s writing or artwork has appeared in numerous Pagan magazines, including Circle

Network News, Green Egg, ATC's Panegyria, Harvest, Covenant of the Goddess Newsletter, Gerina Dunwich's Golden Isis Magazine,and Silver RavenWolf's PWPA Newsletter. In addition Rev. Don has produced several sets of Pagan-themed clip art, and together with MaryAnn Kay produced Rev. Don's Omnibus of Incantations and Invocations for All Occasions, a massive compendium of spells, chants, invocations and artwork.

However as an author Rev. Don is probably best known for the Witch School series of books, based upon the classes at Witch School, available from Llewellyn Press (

Rev. Don is also well-known for having illustrated the beloved pamphlet "The Other People" available from Pathfinder Press.

Rev. Don’s first published booklet was The Five Mystic Secrets, which he edited for his mother the Blv. LaVeda who published it under her pseudonym, Elizabeth Greenwood.

Rev. Don has made numerous TV and radio appearances, was co-host of Chicago’s "The Witching Hour" radio program in the early ‘90s, and was a regular guest on the "Telepathic Radio" program.

Rev. Don is well known as a professional psychic. He has been a professional clairvoyant since 1984 AD, and is a well-known astrologer. But Rev. Don is best known as a Tarologist, and the designer of the Tarot of Hekate (1982 AD).

Rev. Don was introduced to the Tarot by his mother, who gave him his first deck (The Tarot of the Hoi Polloi) at age11. The Blv. LaVeda acted as  her son's booking agent during the early part of his psychic career.

In 1987 AD, Rev. Don was awarded the Silver Salamander Award for excellence in Pagan journalism, and is listed in the Who’s Who of the Magickal and Pagan Community, published around the same time.

A prominent member of the Fellowship of Isis, Rev. Don has been in[1]volved Chicago’s Isian Mystery Conferences since the first one in 1994 AD, and moderates an Isian email list:

In the Fellowship of Isis Rev. Don holds the ranks of Priest of Isis (Sept. 2002 AD), Knight Commander in the Noble Order of Tara (Sept. 2001 AD), Adeptus (2000 AD), Druidic Companion in the Druid Clan of Dana (1999 AD) and heads the Iseum of Isis Lady Of Lake Michigan.


Lucius Apuleius is the author of the Metamorphoses of Lucius, or the Golden Ass – a classic novel about magic and the only ancient Roman novel to survive intact to modern times. The novel is the story of a man, Lucius, who experiments with magic and is transformed into a donkey, ultimately regaining his own form by praying to the Goddess Isis. Apuleius was a Berber, born in Madauros, North Africa, around 125 AD.

His father was a wealthy magistrate. Apuleius studied oratory in Rome, and served as a lawyer in his youth. Later he enjoyed a career in politics in his native North Africa.Apuleius was a Priestly initiate of several mystery religions, including the Mysteries of Isis and the Mysteries of Dionysus, as well as being a Temple Priest of Aesculapius.

Apuleius was considered to be an expert in magic. His reputation in magic was so great that when he married the wealthy widow Pudentilla, the mother of a friend from his school days, he was accused of using black magic to bewitch her. Put on trial, Apuleius made a passionate defense that is preserved today as Apologia: A Discourse on Magic. He was acquitted.

In addition to The Golden Ass Apuleius also wrote On Plato and His Doc[1]trine, The God of Socrates, On The Universe, as well as many other works that have not survived. Lucius Apuleius died around 180 AD.


Dorothy Morrison is a Third Degree High Priestess of the Georgian Tradi[1]tion of Wicca, and an award-winning author with thirteen books on magic and Witchcraft. Lady Dorothy also wrote the text for the Whimsi[1]cal Tarot, illustrated by Mary Hanson-Roberts.

Born in Texas on May 6, 1955, Lady Dorothy currently lives in Virginia with her husband Mark. Through her mother Lady Dorothy is descended from both William the Conqueror of England and Robert the Bruce of Scotland.

Lady Dorothy was introduced to Witchcraft in 1973, becoming a mem[1]ber and later a High Priestess in the Georgian tradition. Lady Dorothy founded the Crystal Garden Coven in 1986. Today Lady Dorothy is study[1]ing with the RavenMyst Tradition and is currently a member of the Coven of the Raven.

Lady Dorothy’s work has been published in many Pagan journals and magazines, including Circle Network News, SageWoman, and The Crone Chronicles. Lady Dorothy is also a member of the Pagan Poets Society.

Some of Dorothy Morrison’s many books include: Bud, Blossom & Leaf: The Magical Herb Gardener's Handbook (2001): Everyday Magic: Spells & Rituals for Modern Living (2002): In Praise of the Crone (1999)


Thomas Morton was the first prominent European Pagan in North America. Morton was a lawyer, a writer, a prominent royalist, and a devotee of classical Paganism. Morton was also, not surprisingly, a fierce and outspoken opponent of Purtitanism.

Thomas Morton was born in Devonshire around 1578. Morton immi[1]grated to the New World in 1618. By 1624 Morton was a leader of the Mount Wollaston colony, in what is now Massachusetts. By 1626 Morton had fallen out with Wollaston and taken over the colony, which he renamed Merrymount. Morton’s Merrymount was run as a multicultural settlement with both European and Native American residents, featured Pagan rites dedicated to classical Deities including Venus and Bacchus, and notably an annual May Day celebration. Morton encouraged intermarriage between the Europeans and Native Americans, as well as cultural assimilation.

The Puritan settlers were deeply upset by the goings on at Merrymount, which they regarded as expressly Pagan, and their condemnations accuse Morton of worshipping a number of classical Deities and of promoting drinking and sexual license.

In June of 1628 Puritan forces under Miles Standish attacked and captured Merrymount, chopped down it’s Maypole, and arrested Morton on the charge of selling guns to Native Americans. Morton was marooned on the Isles of Shoals, off New Hampshire, until he could be deported back to England. Meanwhile the Puritans renamed Merrymount as “Mount Dagan”, ultimately burning it to the ground the following year. The area that was once Merrymount is today Quincy, Massachusetts.

Deported to England, Morton began a lawsuit against the Massachusetts Bay Company, and garnered considerable support. The Massachusetts Bay Company held the charter for the Massachusetts Bay colony. In 1635 Morton won his lawsuit and the colony’s charter was revoked.

Morton would go on to rebuke the New England Puritans in his three-book series New English Canaan in which he compared the behavior of the Puritans to the biblical slaughter of the Canaanites.

With the beginning of the English Civil War in 1642, Morton returned to New England as the agent of the Governor of Maine, Sir Ferdinando

Gorges, his longtime friend and patron. After foolishly traveling to Plym[1]outh, Morton was arrested and imprisoned by Puritan forces. After some time Morton was released due to his advancing age and failing health, and fled to Maine where Gorges’ supporters gave him shelter.

Morton died in Maine in 1647 at the age of 71.


Margaret Alice Murray was a prominent Egyptologist, Anthropologist, Folklorist, and campaigner for Women’s Rights.

Margaret Murray was born in Calcutta, India, on July 13, 1863. For most of her professional career Murray was known as an Egyptologist of high repute. She accompanied leading Egyptologist Sir William Flinders Petrie on several archeological expeditions in Egypt in the late 1800s, and was first Curator of the Egyptian Collection at the Manchester Museum in the University of Manchester, England.

As an Egyptologist Murray is most famous for the unwrapping and au[1]topsy of the “Two Brothers” in 1908, the first interdisciplinary unwrap[1]ping of an Egyptian Mummy, which revolutionized how such things were done thereafter.

Margaret Murray published a number of books during her lifetime, the last two of which – The Genesis of Religion and her autobiography My First Hundred Years – were published when she was 100 years old. Most of Murray’s books dealt with Egyptian or Classical archeology.

However it was her three books on Witchcraft that revolutionized modern Paganism. In The Witch-Cult in Western Europe (1921), God of the Witches (1933), and The Divine King in England (1954) Murray popular[1]ized the idea that the Witches persecuted during Europe’s Witch Hunts were the survivors of ancient Pagan religion.

Together with the work of Charles Leland and Dion Fortune, Murray’s books popularized the idea of Witchcraft as the Old Religion, and led to the foundation of many modern covens and groups dedicated to this idea.

Margaret Murray died on November 13, 1963, at the age of one hundred years.

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